Late Paleoindian Artifacts

The tools are presented here in black & white to clarify flake-scars.  The photos are set to be close to actual size when viewed on a normal size screen.

An interesting hammerstone and anvil.  Although not especially significant on many sites, these were probably transported 240 km (150 miles) or more to the site as rock is almost completely unavailable on the Llano Estacado.  There are other examples of tools like these from the site, but these are exceptional examples that would have been quite valuable to their original users.

3 thoughts on “Late Paleoindian Artifacts

  1. “An interesting hammerstone and anvil. Although not especially significant on many sites, these were probably transported 240 km (150 miles) or more to the site as rock is almost completely unavailable on the Llano Estacado.”

    But was the site not discovered in the course of gravel mining ?

    • Bill,
      I assume you mean that the rock could be from the underlying gravel deposits. A common misconception is that the site was discovered during mining operations. Unfortunately, no. The site was known and collected by the late 1920s and its significance certainly established by 1929. Apparently, the ancient gravel bar from the extinct river was discovered not long after either through coring or well-digging. There was apparently a very brief period of gravel mining in the 1930s but the state rated it as inferior and abandoned the small pit they had opened. In the meantime, a few of the big discoveries were made by the archaeologists working from about 1932-1936. A lot of the big discoveries were made during the second, more substantial period, of gravel mining in the 1960s. Unfortunately, more was destroyed during this period than any other time as well.
      As for the anvil and hammerstone, I think the deposit was way too deep for the Clovis people to have dug up. In most places, we believe the gravel was at least 30 feet below the surface.

  2. Thank you ! That clarifies everything.

    And thanks for presenting these ! With artifacts, a picture is worth thousand words.

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