Clovis points from the Clovis site. These likely all date to a few centuries around 11,000 RCYBP and most were found in association with Mammuthus columbi and a few with Bison antiquus. The Clovis site contained at least 28 mammoths that died or were killed around the pond margin and there is good evidence that six or more were killed by humans.
As can be seen in this image, the raw materials were variable but high quality. Also notable are the small size of the points. Non-hunters often mistakenly think that a small point is for small prey but quite the opposite may be true. Until recently, small arrow points were used in Africa to bring down elephants, buffalo, and other large game. The object is to pierce a vital organ or artery and a wider blade needs more force to cut through hide to reach the protected organs. There was probably much more thought to the animal’s behavior and the situation of the kill and it may be no coincidence that all of the known mammoth and bison kills at the site are within the muddy pond margin.
The majority of raw materials are Edwards Plateau Chert or Alibates Agate from the Canadian River in Texas. Other materials include quartzite, likely procured in the upper reaches of the Canadian, Tecovas jasper from north Texas, silicified wood, and obsidian.
More to come…