The signature species of the Great Plains of North America.


They were utilized in abundance by prehistoric people and are extremely common at the Clovis site. The hunting traps at Blackwater Draw were in regular use for thousands of years.

“After nine days’ march I reached some plains, so vast that I did not find their limit anywhere that I went, although I traveled over them for more than 300 leagues. And I found such a quantity of cows in these, of the kind that I wrote Your Majesty about, which they have in this country, that it is impossible to number them, for while I was journeying through these plains, until I returned to where I first found them, there was not a day that I lost sight of them.”

Vázquez de Coronado writing to king Carlos of Spain, 1541


Thevet’s engraving of “The Buffalo”, Antwerp 1558. This is the oldest known depiction of an American bison by a European.

Peale’s “Barber Farm” Mastodon

A Significant Episode in the History of Modern Science

An early and significant excavation of an American mastodon was undertaken in Orange County, New York during the summer of 1801.  This mastodon is credited as the world’s first fully articulated prehistoric skeleton of any type.  The work was directed by scientist and painter Charles Willson Peale, friend and colleague of Thomas Jefferson and a former member of the revolutionary insurgents, the Sons of Liberty.


Charles Peale is an interesting person for many reasons.  Like many great people, Peale failed at several careers before discovering his true talents, as a painter, scientist, and inventor.  Peale undertook this excavation in 1801, only five years after Cuvier’s monumental lecture in Paris.

Portrait of Georges Cuvier.  Linnaeus and Cuvier have been my two gods, though in very different ways, but they were mere schoolboys to old Aristotle.

Portrait of Georges Cuvier. “Linnaeus and Cuvier have been my two gods, though in very different ways, but they were mere schoolboys to old Aristotle,”  wrote Charles Darwin in 1882.

Georges Cuvier should really be known to anyone with an interest in the history of science, paleontology, anatomy, or biology, especially those of us dealing with mammoths and mastodons.  Cuvier first understood that there were at least two species of animals (mammoths and mastodons) represented in the (then) recent finds, just as Asian and African elephants are two distinct species.  Although Cuvier was a staunch anti-evolutionist throughout his life, Georges actually laid some of the ground work for Charles Darwin and other biologists by postulating the whole concept of extinction as a fact.  But of course, I’m straying from the point of this post.


Painting now referred to as The Exhumation of the Mastodon at Barber’s Farm. Painted from field sketches of the excavation by Charles Peale.  Note the full-scale illustration of the articulated leg held by Peale in the image.  A clever field image and self portrait in one.  This image is a composite painting, while focusing on the primary excavation, depicts traits of the three excavations undertaken that summer.

Peale’s excavations (there were two other subsequent mastodons recovered in the area), established the anatomy of what we now know as the American mastodon by carefully documenting and organizing bones as they were excavated from the pond site.  The above painting, by Peale himself show the scale of this massive undertaking.

     Lugging the bones back to Philadelphia, the Peales painstakingly mounted the specimen for display, and soon chimed in on the debate regarding the nature of mastodons, arguing that the beasts were mighty carnivores. If nothing else, the interpretation was good for business: the display became one of the most popular natural historical exhibits of the period, drawing thousands over the years.

From An American behemoth: Peale’s mastodon, American Philosophical Society website, 2000.  Emphasis added by Crawford.

Peale’s sons also help document the finds, illustrating the specimens with great and growing knowledge of vertebrate anatomy.

Working Sketch of the Mastodon by Rembrandt Peale, 1801.

Working Sketch of the Mastodon by Rembrandt Peale, 1801.

If you like your information in social media-length snippets and short soundbites then this might be a bit of a read but here is selected information from the National Register of Historic Places form summarizing the project.  I’ve edited it down to make it a little more readable.  You can download the full form as a pdf file from the NRHP website by clicking this link.  It isn’t fine literature but gets the story across.  If you don’t care to read, but are here for the images, skip on a bit.

     The Orange County expedition was in large measure predicated on the desire to explain, what in fact, this “mammoth” creature was. Prior to Peale’s discovery, prehistoric bones had been found in the Hudson Valley and elsewhere, but these individual and unidentified fragments resulted primarily in speculation motivated, to some extent, by religious superstition. Peale’s 1801 expedition was inspired by the discovery of unusual skeletal remains at a number of area farms in the last quarter of the 18th century, including that of Captain Joseph Barber, who in 1793 unearthed a small number of mastodon rib bones while digging marl on his property. This and other such discoveries, like the bones unearthed on the farm of Reverend Robert Annan around 1780-remains that were subsequently viewed by General George Washington and other Continental army officers … during the war generated considerable interest in this subject and helped spur the Peale expedition.

From from Godman’s American Natural History 1836.

Mastodon skull (inferior view) from from Godman’s American Natural History 1836.

Peale’s 1801 effort included a preliminary trip to the area in the spring, followed by a more extensive expedition that summer, the latter focusing on three area sites in the present-day towns of Newburgh, Montgomery, and Crawford. The summer expedition yielded enough remains to round out those bones previously collected and allowed him to form two essentially complete skeletons. One of the two reassembled mastodon skeletons was first exhibited in Philadelphia on Christmas Eve 1801, to great fanfare. Today the one remaining mastodon skeleton-that first assembled- is exhibited at the Hessisches Landemuseum in Darmstadt, Germany. The other was destroyed by fire in Baltimore, Maryland in 1850.


Sketch of the Great Mastodon by Titian Ramsay Peale, 1821.

National awareness of the mastodon remains recovered in Orange County … is illustrated by President Thomas Jefferson’s correspondence with Peale on the subject, Jefferson’s granting of Federal assistance to the summer 1801 expedition, his own attempts to acquire Hudson Valley mastodon bones, and likewise his directive to explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in 1804 to find other examples of the mammoth during their explorations of the post-Louisiana Purchase American West.  Jefferson … previously referenced the mammoth in his Notes on the State of Virginia in his effort to debunk the French naturalist Compte de Buffon’s theory of American Degeneracy, which held that mammals would reduce in size and vigor over the course of several generations due to poor environmental factors once introduced in North America.  Buffon’s theory, which proved a springboard for related theories such as that promoted by Abbe Raynal who extended it to include European-born settlers undermined the young nation’s legitimacy on the international stage, rousing the passions of Jefferson, among others.


Mastodon feet, from Godman’s American Natural History 1836.

The mastodon remains unearthed in Orange County formed an important, if not watershed event, in this international debate, by providing the first essentially complete skeletons of this prehistoric mammal.  They offered important data for the scientific community while likewise contributing to a shared American national identity in an age of cultural exploration and self definition. It should also be noted that, in additional to serving as a landmark event in the birth of American paleontology, Peale’s expedition represented the first American scientific expedition ever conducted, receiving as it did modest Federal assistance… This event further represented the first successful expedition in what proved an international quest to find the fist complete skeleton of the unknown animal known as the “mammoth,” as parties in France, Germany, Spain, England and America had sought to locate further remains of this species since the 1730s.


Mastodon legs, from Godman’s American Natural History 1836.

The Pleistocene-era mammal that was the focus of Peale’s efforts in the Hudson Valley and Jefferson’s queries was known informally at the time as the American incognitum, or mammoth, and is today known as the American mastodon, or Mammut americanum. Jefferson referred to the animal variously as the mammoth and “big buffalo” in his Notes on the State of Virginia; it was not until 1809 that he learned of the French naturalist Georges Cuvier’s (different link than above) use of the term mastodonte, at which time the term mastodont or mastodon came into broad usage. The term “mammoth” relates to contemporary speculation regarding the size and the unknown nature of the animal …

Eighteenth-century drawing of a mastodon tooth from Big Bone Lick, Kentucky.

Eighteenth-century drawing of a mastodon tooth from Big Bone Lick, Kentucky.

The Cost of Field Work (what follows is the agreement made to purchase the initial specimens and conduct further work at the Masten site) that did not yield the hoped-for results.

Peale and Masten agreed to the following transaction: $200, a shotgun for Masten’s son and gowns from N ew York City for his daughters in exchange for the existing set of bones, and an additional $100 to conduct further excavations on site… Peale exhibited his drawings of the mastodon at a meeting of the American Philosophical Society, at which time he requested a loan of $500 to support his upcoming field work.  After appealing to President Jefferson for several large tents and a pump to further his work at the Masten farm, Peale left for the Hudson Valley with his son Rembrandt, museum assistant Jotham Fenton, and Dr. James Woodhouse, a chemistry professor at the University of Pennsylvania.

Although three sites were excavated in the months of August and July 1801, the first of which was Masten Farm.

The site presented considerable challenges, given the uncharacteristic depth of the pit, which was likewise filled with 12 feet of water upon the expedition’s arrival. After constructing the “crab,” which only heightened the curiosity of the many people who came to watch the unusual work of
Peale’s team first-hand, a dozen laborers descended into the pit to begin the process of shoveling marl.

It proved to be a bust with little recovered.  The team then turned to Barber Farm.

The site-a small marl bog-presented far less challenges (than Masten), as it was very easily drained through the construction of a trench and the use of the nautical pump, unlike the Masten site which was fraught with complexities. Laborers removed the marl, careful not to damage any bones, and set it aside for Barber’s subsequent use. Barber gave Peale two ribs he had found previously, and the site yielded a small collection of bones, including two rotten tusks, a few small grinders, toes bones and vertebrae, a broken scapula, and an almost entire set of ribs.  The nearly intact set of ribs would later prove important to the Peales as they worked to assemble a complete skeleton…

Peale really wanted a complete skeleton.  There were several lead as to other mastodon sites nearby but he chose the Millspaw morass; and he chose wisely.

In early September Peale considered a new site to focus his attention on, in order to find the missing bones that had been eluding his team-those necessary to form a complete skeleton. Captain Barber accompanied Peale to the farm where Reverend Annan had made his discoveries some two decades prior, and to the farm of Alexander Colden; however the team, at the urging of Dr. Gallatin, finally selected the tenant farm of Peter Milspaw, where significant bone deposits were discovered a decade earlier.

At this point, Peale used a technique that any modern archaeologist will recognize.  As the area to search was large and the strata to be examined deeply buried, he devised a probe by putting wooden cross handles on long iron rods.  When bone was struck, a pit, forty feet square was excavated and the water was pumped out.

Drawing of mammoth and elephant skulls from Rembrandt Peale, "On the differences which exits between the Herds of the Mammoth and 'Elephant,'" Philosophical Magazine 14 (1803).  American Philosophical Society.

Drawing of mammoth and elephant skulls from Rembrandt Peale, “On the differences which exits between the Herds of the Mammoth and ‘Elephant,'” Philosophical Magazine 14 (1803). American Philosophical Society.

 What follows is a short excerpt from the notes of Rembrandt Peale from the frustrating search –

   “Here alternate success and disappointment amused and fatigued us for a long while; until our pockets emptied, our spirits low, our workmen languid, we were about to quit the morass with but a small collection, though in good preservation …

     “In the meanwhile the ground was searched in various directions with long-pointed rods and cross handles … and by this means, in a very unexpected direction, struck upon a large collection of bones, which were dug to and taken up with every possible care. They proved to be a humerus, or large bone of the right leg with the radius and ulna of the left, the right scapula, the atlas, and, the great object of our pursuit, a complete under jaw!

     “After such a variety of labour and length of fruitless expectation, this success was extremely grateful to all parties, and the woods echoed with repeated huzzas. “Gracious God, what a jaw! How many animals must have been crushed between it!” was the exclamation of all; a fresh supply of grog went round, and the hearty fellows, covered with mud, continued the search.”

Reconstructing the mammoth for the first museum display.

Using the bones from the three sites, Rembrandt Peale carved wood duplicates of missing bones in order that two nearly complete skeletons could eventually be formed. On Christmas Eve, 1801, the first of these skeletons was displayed at Peale’s museum in Philadelphia, while the following year Rembrandt and Rubens Peale exhibited the second skeleton in London.

Peale Museum announcement of Mammoth

Knowledge of the mastodon was not confined solely within intellectual and scientific circles, however, as the prehistoric mammal captured the American public’s attention; the skeleton displayed in Peale’s Philadelphia museum was among the preeminent curiosities of its day, and much admired by visitors.

An invitation to the Peale Museum.

An invitation to the Peale Museum 1829.

In addition to their cultural relevance, the ability of the Peales to form a complete mastodon skeleton from the Orange County remains was critical to the contemporary international scientific community. Prior to the articulation of a complete mastodon skeleton, made possible only after the 1801 expedition, there was little consensus so far as the nature of this animal was concerned; the two Peale-assembled skeletons allowed for a more thorough interpretation of the mastodon’s movement, weight, potential range, and other important considerations. Some in Europe, such as Buffon, had previously claimed the American mammoth to simply be a relative of the elephant, an argument that continued to be forwarded by critics of the London exhibition.  Yet more importantly, the articulation of a complete skeleton and with it the ability for a more precise interpretation provided the critical information necessary for naturalists like Georges Cuvier, once and for all, to prove definitively that some animals had become extinct over the course of history-a theory considered heretical to some, as it ran counter to existing views of the world as seen through the lens of contemporary religion.

The Artist in His Museum, 1822.  Notice the mastodon specimens in the foreground and the glimpse of the articulated behemoth behind the curtain.

The Artist in His Museum, Charles Willson Peale 1822 (1741–1827). Notice the mastodon specimens in the foreground and the glimpse of the articulated behemoth behind the curtain; a high point of his career.

All in all, a discovery of immense importance, nearly forgotten in our education.

Barnes Pond today.

Barber’s Pond today.

Co-rex-ions (a thoughtful read)

Originally posted on What's In John's Freezer?:

This post is solely my opinion; not reflecting any views of my coauthors, my university, etc, and was written in my free time at home. I am just putting my current thoughts in writing, with the hope of stimulating some discussion. My post is based on some ruminations I’ve had over recent years, in which I’ve seen a lot of change happening in how science’s self-correcting process works, and the levels of openness in science, which are trends that seem likely to only get more intense.

That’s what this post ponders- where are we headed and what does it mean for scientists and science? Please stay to the end. It’s a long read, but I hope it is worth it. I raise some points at the end that I feel strongly about, and many people (not just scientists) might also agree with or be stimulated to think about more.


View original 2,370 more words

How Do Creationists Know What Dinosaurs Looked Like?

From Chasing the Raptor

“While watching a video of the Creationist Museum in Kentucky, with its impressively-detailed animatronic full-scale dinosaur models, I was struck by the thought: how do creationists know what dinosaurs looked like? I mean: there are these moving, snarling model dinosaurs in an institution which has elevated pseudoscience to the dubious level of a theme park attraction, and whose staff (at least, in the various interviews which I have seen them give) appear to have a near-pathological disdain for the scientific method. So how do creationists know what dinosaurs looked like?”

Breaking News About Paleoindians at Clovis!!!


Portales Daily News.  Note that there was no “Clovis” cultural group yet…\

News1936-1jpgNews1936-2jpgClick HERE for the pdf, with bonus Coronado article OR link below:

Rancho La Brea Photo Album


Wandering scholars discover the Page Museum at La Brea Tar Pits.

Recent travels allowed for a quick visit to the Page Museum at the La Brea Tar Pits.  Now in their one hundredth year of excavation, the site has yielded over 600 species to date with a NISP of over 3.5 million (not counting over 200 bacteria).  It’s a remarkable place and I feel privileged to to have been given an excellent tour by Dr John Harris and Curator Gary Takeuchi.  Tar still bubbles and oozes and excavations continue, thanks in part to continuing growth of this highly urbanized area.


Chuck and George with Dr John Harris and Gary Takeuchi

Although most of the tar seeps are closed off for safety, a couple can be accessed with a guide.  The surface is just as deceptive as it is described and is often covered with leaves and dirt.  The tar can also be deceptively solid feeling until the incredible stickiness locks your feet to the tar.  Dr Harris provided a great example by having us poke the tar with a wooden lath.  Even though it is solid enough to resist the lath for more than a top inch or two, it is extremely difficult to pull it back out again and it’s easy to imagine a hooved animal becoming mired almost instantly to await it’s demise by large cat or wolf or even thirst.


You just gotta poke it with a stick…

For reasons that aren’t completely clear, there are an extremely high number of predators and scavengers in the mix, implying that many carnivores may be tempted by a struggling animal but the more cautious grazers were likely scared away by their thrashing comrades.  The upshot of this is an enormous number of coyotes, wolves, saber-toothed cats, short-faced bears, and American lions as well as the full gamut of vulture-like birds filling these pits and seeps.  Below I am holding the humerus of a Smilodon fatalis, a prevalent creature at the Tar Pits.


Examining a freshly excavated smilodon humerus (upper arm of saber-toothed cat).


Examining the mounted saber-toothed cats.


And of course, a mammoth.


A couple of mastodon.


Just a glimpse of the over 3.5 million specimens housed at the Page.


We had a wonderful tour of the “fish-bowl” lab by Shelly Cox.  Here we examine the newly cleaned mammoth tusk.

Tusks grow like tree-rings and tell scientists a lot about the environment the creature lived in by proxy.  A section of this particular specimen has been removed for analysis already.


Cranium of a very familiar looking mammoth. Although not found inundated in tar, there is still enough in the sediment that it is oozing from the cleaned skull.

For anyone interested in Ice Age fauna, the Page Museum is a definite “must see” stop on the journey through life.


Click the mammoth to see more from the Page Museum at